The other explanations do not specify contingent hypotheses but predict similar effects across nations at all income levels and with diverse cultural backgrounds. In support of the hypothesis, she finds evidence that sex differences in mortality from lung cancer have declined over time in high-income nations. At the same time, however, the nations include all regions, levels of development, and levels of cigarette use, and contain 5.
Although neither of these trials observed significant differences in smoking cessation, perhaps because of small sample sizes, the study by Williams et al. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in women compared with men: References Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: Jenks RA, Higgs S. These trends vary by gender and age, such that among adolescents the prevalence of smoking has declined less in females, whereas among adults a greater decline has been observed in women. Men may be more susceptible to anger-related problems than women. Chronic cigarette smoking alters circulating sex hormones and neuroactive steroids in premenopausal women. Menstrual cycle phase at quit date and smoking abstinence at 6 weeks in an open label trial of bupropion. The global spread of cigarettes obviously has implications for world health. Overall, these data suggest that women may be more responsive to nicotine during the follicular phase low PE ratio. The average weight gain six months post-cessation was ten pounds for a sample of female prisoners, who arguably have a stable energy intake and output [ 43 ]. Prior studies have shown that if women are assigned nicotine replacement therapy, relapse is less likely to occur during the follicular than the luteal phase [ 61 , 62 ]. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Curr Addict Rep See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women: How tobacco smoke causes disease: Urbanization or the percentage of the population living in cities comes from the World Bank , Furthermore, for females the follicular phase was associated with greater subjective reduction in craving after nicotine administration than the luteal phase [ 58 ]. Otherwise, changing the denominator changes the implicit standard of comparison, can alter the scale of the ratio values, and makes results dependent on an arbitrary choice. Few studies have examined global patterns of sex differences in cigarette use and included middle- and low-income nations along with high-income nations in cross-national studies. A series of studies has been published examining the effect of sex hormones on response to nicotine and smoking. Extended duration therapy with transdermal nicotine may attenuate weight gain following smoking cessation. High status groups led, ironically, by physicians, Lopez et al. Among high-income nations, the northern European nations and the United States adopted smoking and advanced further in the diffusion process than southern European nations and Japan Pampel, , ; Trovato and Heyen, Health impact of smoking and smoking cessation strategies: For example, the pace of change in cigarette use may not correspond fully to the stage in cigarette diffusion.
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