Corazon Aquino —92 , who ascended to the presidency upon the successful People Power Revolution of , and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo —10 , who, as Vice President, ascended to the presidency upon Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in Marcos introduced a parliamentary-style government. Early republics[ edit ] Bonifacio's Tagalog Republic[ edit ] Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar should also be included.
Quezon  and Manuel Roxas  and one in a plane crash Ramon Magsaysay , —57 . It was later amended in to limit a President to serving no more than two four-year terms. The inclusion of Laurel thus causes some problems in determining the order of presidents. Marcos introduced a parliamentary-style government. This Constitution was in effect until the People Power Revolution of toppled Marcos's year authoritarian regime and replaced him with Corazon C. The First Philippine Republic was short-lived and never internationally recognized. When the Katipunan started an open revolt against the Spanish colonial government in August , Bonifacio transformed the society into a revolutionary government with him as its head. Early republics[ edit ] Bonifacio's Tagalog Republic[ edit ] Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Often called the "Freedom Constitution," the proclamation retained only parts of the Constitution that were essential for a return to democratic rule, such as the bill of rights. While the government may consider Aguinaldo as the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States' jurisdiction due to the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish—American War ; the United States thus does not consider his tenure to have been legitimate. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic Spanish: Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government;  his de facto presidency,  not legally recognized until the s,  overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. He is also the first to win a popular election and a nationwide election. The first national presidential election was held, [note 3] and Manuel L. Kataas-taasang Pangulo of the Katipunan , a secret revolutionary society. His government effectively ceased to exist on April 1, , after he pledged allegiance to the United States following his capture by U. He formed a dictatorial government on May 24, and issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, Consequently, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. Two women have held the office: Although the word Tagalog refers to the Tagalog people , a specific ethno-linguistic group, Bonifacio used it to denote all non-Spanish peoples of the Philippines in place of Filipinos , which had colonial origins. Quezon was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines , which had been established, still under United States sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on 14 May of that year. After the combined American and Filipino forces liberated the islands in , Laurel officially dissolved the republic on August 17, Any person who has served as president for more than four years is barred from running for the position again. On June 23, , Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. The constitution vests the executive power with the president who consequently heads the government's executive branch, including the Cabinet and all executive departments. Following the ratification of the Malolos Constitution in , Emilio Aguinaldo became the inaugural president of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.
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